Kumar and N. Gautham*
Crystallography and Biophysics, University of
Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600 025, India
report here the preliminary characterization of hexagonal ring-shaped crystals of a
hexadeoxyribonucleotide. This is the first report of crystals which grow naturally with
this interesting ring morphology. We discuss the mechanism which could possibly lead to
the growth of these rings.
first oligonucleotide crystals were grown by Viswamitra et al.1 in 1978, there have been reports
of close to 1000 other sequences of lengths ranging from 4 to 16 which have been
crystallized2. Structures of longer oligomer sequences have been reported as
proteinDNA complexes, as for example the 33-mer in the metal-ion-activated
Diphtheria Tox Repressor/Tox DNA operator complex3. In the structures of
oligonucleotides alone, owing to the approximately cylindrical shape of short DNA
duplexes, there are limited number of packing modes for the molecules4,5 and
this limitation is reflected, first in the crystal system and space group6 and
then in the crystal morphology and habit7,8. Furthermore, the crystal packing
modes have been shown to be dependent on the helical type4, i.e. on whether the
DNA helix is of the right-handed A or B types, or of the left-handed Z type. This last
helical type has been observed mostly in crystals of hexanucleotides with the sequence
d(CGCGCG)2 or variations of it9,10. In a majority of the crystals of
such hexamers, the packing mode is as follows: The Z-DNA duplexes stack on top of one
another to form infinite columns. These columns are then bundled together in a hexagonal
close packed arrangement to form the crystal. The external morphology of the crystal is
principally hexagonal plates or prisms7,8. However, the space group to which
the crystals belong is chiefly orthorhombic P212121,
though others9, such as C2221, P21 and C2 have also been
As part of our studies on the effect of AT base-pairs on the structure of
Z-DNA we have been using X-ray crystallography to obtain the crystal structures of
hexameric sequences in which a single AT base-pair replaces a CG base-pair at each
position of the canonical Z-DNA sequence d(CGCGCG)12. In this
connection we have solved the structures of d(CGCACG).d(CGTGCG) and d(CACGCG).d(CGCGTG)11.
The former duplex crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21, while the
latter crystallizes in orthorhombic P212121. In both
cases, initial crystallization trials yielded hexagonal plates, but the crystals finally
chosen for data collection were rectangular prisms8. Again in both cases, the
duplexes pack in the crystal as hexagonal close packed columns. However, as discussed
elsewhere5, a shift in the relative disposition of adjacent columns leads to
the two different space groups. The third duplex in this series is d(CGCGCA).d(TGCGCG).
Much to our surprise (and delight!) this sequence has yielded hexagonal ring-shaped
crystals under specific and reproducible conditions.
The two hexamers, viz. d(TGCGCG) and d(CGCGCA) were purchased from M/s
Microsynth, Switzerland and were used without further purification. A PAGE gel photograph
supplied by the manufacturer, established that the purity was greater than 95%. The two
sequences were carefully annealed to form the duplex which was then stored at 4ºC.
Crystals of the duplex were grown in two different conditions. In the first set of
experiments hexagonal plate-like crystals of size 0.2 ´ 0.2 ´ 0.1 mm
were obtained at room temperature (300 K) by the hanging-drop vapour diffusion
method. The drop contained 2 mM hexamer duplex, 100 mM sodium cacodylate buffer
at pH 7.0 and 50 mM MgCl2 and was equilibrated for four days against the
reservoir solution which contained 50% MPD. These crystals diffracted to a resolution of
2.0 Å. Structure analysis using data obtained from this set of crystals is in
progress and will be reported elsewhere.
In order to improve the crystal quality, we performed a second set of
crystallization experiments, replacing Mg2+ by cobalt hexamine. This ion is a
strong inducer and stabilizer of the transition from right-handed to left-handed DNA13,14
and the experiments were based on the hypothesis that crystals grown from a drop
containing [Co(NH3)6]3+ cations would diffract to a
higher resolution, since the crystal packing would probably be less disordered. Also we
hoped that the lack of disorder would lead to a single duplex in the asymmetric unit. This
set of experiments consistently yielded the novel ring-shaped crystals as shown in Figure
1 a. Crystals of this
morphology appeared in a small range of concentration of Co(NH3)6Cl3.
The biggest crystals (of size 0.05 ´ 0.05 ´ 0.005 mm)
were grown by the hanging-drop vapour diffusion method at 300 K. The drop contained
2 mM hexamer, 100 mM sodium cacodylate buffer at pH 7.0, 1 mM spermine and
20 mM Co(NH3)6Cl3 and was equilibrated against the
reservoir solution of 50% MPD. The crystals were too small to be mounted for X-ray
diffraction experiments with laboratory X-ray sources. The crystallinity was therefore
checked by examining the crystals under cross-polarizers . The extinction observed
indicated that they are crystals, and not glassy or gel-like aggregates. To establish that
the ring was not an artefact of a particular view of the crystal, a thin glass fibre was
inserted in the hole (Figure 2). It was possible to easily string together a
set of rings on the tip of the fibre. To establish that these are indeed crystals of the
oligonuclotide and not of some salt or other impurity, a gel electrophoresis experiment
was performed. The crystals were harvested from the drop and were dissolved in buffer
solution after washing them thoroughly with MPD. A 20% poly acrylamide gel was cast
according to established procedure15. Three lanes were run lane
A contained the dissolved ring-shaped crystals, lanes B and C contained 0.5 mM and
1.0 mM solution, respectively, of the hexamer as used in the crystallization
experiment. The gel was stained with ethidium bromide and viewed under UV (Figure 3). It
was clear from the gel that the crystals were those of the DNA hexamers.
To our knowledge, this is the first report ever of crystals which grow as
rings. An extensive search of the literature, including over the internet, did not turn up
any reference to such crystals. Quartz crystals have been cut into rings and used to
establish frequency standards16, but there are no reports of quartz naturally
grown as rings. One unusual, but natural morphology which may be relevant to the present
discussion is that of the so-called hollow crystals17. These are
crystals which grow as hollow tubes and have been reported in a wide variety of inorganic
and organic substances1821. Several mechanisms have been proposed for
their unusual morphology22,23. The present flat, platy, ring-shaped crystals
however, are unlikely to be a result of any similar mechanism, since the morphology is
quite different. The schematic sketch of a ring crystal (Figure 1 b) indicates that one may consider the rings to be
formed out of six identical rectangular plates which have been arranged in a hexagonal
shape. This might suggest a twinning mechanism which leads to the formation of the rings.
However, when the crystals are viewed under crossed polarizers, the extinction pattern
does not support this explanation. Another possibility is that each ring grows around a
hexagonal template which later disappears, leaving a
hole in the center. Such an explanation finds some support from the fact that we noticed
exactly similar ring-shaped crystals in a two-year old crystallization set-up of the
hexamer d(CGCACG).d(CGTGCG), which contained Ru(NH3)6Cl3.
This experiment (10 mM DNA, 100 mM Na cacodylate buffer at pH 7.0, 5 mM
Ru(NH3)6Cl3, 0.5 mM spermine in the
hanging-drop equilibrated against 45% MPD) first yielded regular hexagonal plates of size
0.1 ´ 0.15 ´ 0.20 mm
within 5 days. These plates did not change for atleast six months. When the experiment was
viewed again after two years, the drop now contained only ring-shaped crystals. Further
support for a template-directed growth mechanism comes from the observation in many of the
present cases of a thin spike running from one side of the hexagonal ring to another as
sketched in Figure 1 b. This
could be a remnant of the template.
To summarize, each
ring-shaped crystal could be the residue of a flat hexagonal plate, the centre of which
has somehow evenly dissolved back into the solution. This however, does not explain
several features such as the notches seen at the six vertices of the hexagon. The role of
the packing mode of DNA hexamers is also unclear. Further experiments are required to
establish the molecular structure and packing of the DNA hexamers in these ring-shaped
crystals and to arrive at satisfactory explanation for their formation.
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thank Department of Biotechnology, Government of India for financial support under project
BT/R&D/15/31/94. P.S.K. thanks CSIR for the award of SRF.
Received 19 May 1999; revised accepted
25 August 1999